Some Previous Projects and Clients
Combustion Tuning on T-Fired Boiler
CC&E performed combustion optimization on tangentially-fired pulverized coal unit for Dairyland Power Co-Op. Using gas emission feedback from furnace exit HVT and economizer outlet grid, CC&E made several combustion air distribution adjustments. The result was balanced excess air distribution, much lower CO as well as reduced NOx emissions.
Annual SCR Tuning
Working with Alstom Power, CC&E conducted SCR tuning for East Kentucky Power. By sampling from a 60-point test grid and mapping of O2 and NOx emissions at the SCR outlet, proper adjustments to the ammonia injection grid were determined for balancing the NOx profile. This was followed by verification of ammonia slip from the SCRs, and determination of air in-leakage across newly rebuilt regenerative air heaters.
Gas Turbine Ammonia Slip Testing
Determination of stack ammonia slip from SCR on a gas combustion turbine for the Bayonne Energy Center.
CC&E performed a combustion optimization project on an opposed wall-fired unit for Duke Energy. We began with a baseline characterization of combustion conditions by mapping flue gas temperatures and constituents at the furnace exit and economizer oultet. We then conducted testing to determine and optimize fuel flow distribution. This was followed by combustion tuning and secondary airflow biasing to balance excess air distribution, minimize CO formation, reduce upper furnace temperatures and improve slag conditions.
MSW-Fired Stoker Combustion Characterization
In-furnace characterization of combustion and stoker grate conditions at a solid waste incinerating facility in Hampton, VA.
Emissions Profiling and Airflow Investigation
CC&E coducted an emissions study for Salt River Project. employing our combustion experience and field testing capabilities to diagnose and determine the causes of various operational issues related to airflow, combustion, process monitoring and periferal equipment operation. While onsite we also provided a detailed assessment of air in-leakage and draft loss across the ESP and air heaters prior to SCR installation.
Alternative Fuel Tuning and Airflow Calibration
Testing at Duke Energy including combustion tuning for an alternative coal as well as secondary airflow calibration
Boiler MACT Annual Combustion Tuning
CC&E conducts annual combustion tuning on four units at an industrial plant in north-central PA, to ensure compliance with EPA’s Boiler MACT regulations. Combustion tuning of multiple process steam boilers, including pulverized coal, stoker, and natural gas fired units.
Combustion Tuning and Air In-Leakage
Following an extensive mill testing and fuel balancing program for Dynegy (formerly Duke Energy), CC&E conducted combustion tuning and a unit air in-leakage assessment. Combustion tuning was conducted by CC&E engineers using O2/NOx/CO feedback from a 48-point economizer outlet gas emission sample grid as well as data from B&W’s Flame Doctor diagnostic system. The tuning effort was accompanied by an air in-leakage inventory involving simultaneous O2 measurements from test grids at the economizer outlet, SCR outlet, air heater inlet, air heater outlet and ESP ouetlet planes.
CFD Modeling of Heat Recovery Coke Oven
CC&E conducted CFD modeling of the primary oven in a coke battery employing the heat recovery design. The CFD modeling analyzed the inlet and mixing of primary air during coke production, and its influence on coal charge pyrolysis and coking.
As part of an extensive unit performance project for Duke Energy, CC&E performed coal fineness testing and fuel flow balancing on one of the largest single-unit fossil fuel boiler ever built, having 14 pulverizers and 98 burners. Seven pulverizers required fuel balancing, while seven others required documentation of current fineness and fuel distribution. Using multiple rotoprobe test crews, CC&E proved to be up to the challenge with our, diligent, efficient approach, balancing fuel flows to an average flow deviation of less than 5%; and averaging fewer than three test iterations to do so.
SCR Tuning & APH Leakage
Working for Alstom Power, CC&E conducted a one-week test project with the purpose of tuning the ammonia injection grid for East Kentucky Power. Tuning was conducted using spatial NOx data obtained from a 48-point test grid as well as multi-point ammonia slip measurements for verification of NH3 utilization. CC&E conducted on-site analysis of ammonia slip samples. This testing was accomanied by a survey of air pre-heater air in-leakage on this unit. We conducted simultaneous mult-point grid sample traverses measuring O2 and CO2 upstream and downstream of the air heater.
Mill Testing & Air Flow Calibration
CC&E conducted performance testing for Duke Energy. We began conducting primary air-flow k-factor verification and calibration for each of the pulverizers. When this was completed, we conducted pulverized fuel sampling using a rotoprobe (ISO 9921) to document fuel fineness and coal flow distribution. Finally, we conducted secondary air flow k-factor calibration in each of the 16 secondary air ducts feeding the wind box.
Working as a subcontractor for ENERActive Solutions, CC&E performed flue gas distribution measurements at a PSEG Peaking Station. CC&E collected O2, CO and NOx distribution data by taking multi-point flue gas measurements in the duct downstream of the SCR catalyst bed of a simple cycle gas combustion turbine. Baseline gas distributions were first determined with SCR ammonia injection off, then again with ammonia flow on. In addition to flue gas constituent distribution, CC&E also determined NO reduction distribution, standard deviation and RMS.
CC&E conducted testing and tuning program for FirstEnergy. Coal-air velocities and pipe-to-pipe coal flow distribution were first determined as per ISO 9931. This information was then used for combustion tuning to improve air distribution and reduce slagging. We used flue gas measurements from the furnace exit as well as a probe grid at the economizer exit to assist in this effort.
Combustion Optimization & Mill Testing
CC&E performed combustion optimization and mill testing on two large tangentially fired PC units for Duke Energy Indiana. We conducted mill testing to determine coal/air velocities as well as pipe-to-pipe coal flow distribution. Dirty air velocities were measured at the minimum load points of a variety of mill combinations. Primary air bias curves were then established to maintain minimum dirty air velocites at these load points. Combustion optimization was also performed using feedback from a 30-point multipoint grid composite flue gas sampling scheme as well as furnace exit gaseous measurements via HVT.
Combustion Tuning – Arch Fired Boilers
CC&E conducted a comprehensive test program on two arch-fired units for WE Energies. On each unit, we conducted primary airflow calibration, coal flow distribution and coal fineness testing, air heater leakage testing and combustion tuning. The tuning involved burner cell air flow adjustments, and secondary-tertiary air ratio adjustments to improve air distribution and reduce upper-furnace slag issues. These adjustments were made using feedback from an economizer outlet probe grid as well as upper furnace gas measurements via HVT probes.
Flue Gas Profile and Air In-Leakage
In March, 2012, CC&E performed air in-leakage measurements on a large PC boiler at a major power plant in Indiana. We measured flue gas O2, CO and NOx at a multi-point grid in the the economizer outlet, while simultaneously measuring velocity and O2 at multipoint grids in the SCR outlet and air heater outlet ducts. Velocity weighted O2 profiles were then calculated for each of these locations.
Cost Savings Realized
2011 GADS data provided by one of our clients showed increased generation from two boilers over previous years after a thorough optimization effort by CC&E. The result for this client was a significant cost savings.
Pre-Outage Air Leakage Survey
In February, 2012, CC&E conducted an extensive pre-outage survey of air in-leakage on a very large PC unit. We simultaneously traversed sample grids at five unique, sequential planes in the back end of the unit starting in the economizer outlet ducts and ending with the precipitator outlet ducts. For each test run conducted, a total of 252 unique test points was sampled. This highlights CC&E’s expert capabilities in multi-point gas sampling and analysis, data acquisition, data organization and teamwork. Our client will use this data to pinpoint maintenance areas during the upcoming outage, which will result in improved performance and efficiency.
CC&E provided baseline test services to a multi-national equipment and services provider conducting a multi-component equipment retrofit at a utility in the Rocky Mountains. This test effort included simultaneous sampling and multi-pollutant analysis of flue gas from multiple test grids at the back end of the unit. Point-by-point traverse as well as equal-flow composite measurements were given.
SNCR Feasibility Study
CC&E conducted a test project to assess the viability of SNCR technology on a small boiler for a client utility. The test involved injection of urea-water solution at a known flow rate using existing upper-furnace viewing doors. Production of the temporary injection system involved mixing the urea solution onsite. We constructed a small portable skid to pump, meter and distribute urea solution via hoses to the various “injection ports”. We installed a gas sample grid (O2/CO/NOx) at the economizer outlet and conducted a series of baseline and SNCR tests using a range of urea flow rates, dilution volumes, and spray patterns. We also measured ammonia slip levels at several grid points upstream of the airheater.
CC&E provided onsite consultation and SCR tuning at Progress Energy. Based on test data, CC&E’s consulting engineer made appropriate adjustments to the ammonia injection grids to maximize ammonia utilization, flatten the NOx profile and minimize overall NOx emissions.
Combustion tuning on stoker boilers at utilities in the Midwest and on the East Coast. In each case, we installed a probe grid in the economizer outlet duct for sampling and mapping of O2, NOx and CO. The furnace exit was also traversed with a water-cooled HVT probe for sampling and mapping of these gas constituents as well as temperature. Air-to-fuel ratios, air distribution, feeder speeds and grate speeds were adjusted to balance the respective gas profiles, minimzize excess air, lower NOx and CO emissions, reduce particle entrainment and improve boiler efficiency.
SCR Tuning Test Support
Test support for a client tuning an SCR on a large boiler at a southern Illinois utility. CC&E conducted automated grid sampling and mapping of O2 and NOx at the SCR outlet to determine necessary adjustments to the ammonia injection grid that would minimize NOx reduction standard deviation RMS.
CFD Model Baseline Test
Baseline testing on a PC unit at a large industrial facility. Coal fineness and flow distribution, in-furnace gas species and economizer grid sampling were conducted to provide baseline boiler operating data. This data will be used to validate a CFD model that CCE will build as a study of SNCR viability and design for this boiler.
Annual Combustion Tuning
Combustion tuning on two small PCs and a stoker boiler at an industrial facility in north-central PA. O2, CO and NOx grid sampling was used as feedback in adjustment of air registers, secondary air and O2 curves, undergrate air and overfire air distribution and operating curves.
Study of cold airflow on two identical stoker boilers at a Midwestern utility to investigate possible causes of variations in slag formation and combustion characteristics between the units. With FD, ID and OFA fans running while the units were off line, extensive measurement and mapping of airflows was done above the stoker grate, in the upper furnace and through the economizer. This study will be supplemented with combustion tuning on the problem stoker when it returns to service from outage.
Combustion Characterization, AH Leakage, Baseline Testing
CC&E conducted testing on four units for Duke Energy. On these units, we conducted O2 and velocity grid measurements at the SCR outlet and air heater outlet for determination of flow-weighted O2 and air in-leakage across the air heaters. We performed economizer grid sampling for O2, CO and NOx, to document combustion conditions on these units as well. We performed in-furmace measurement of O2, CO, NOx and temperature via HVT as well back end gas flow measurements on two units, as baseline characterization for large capital projects.
Combustion optimization of a 180 MW B&W front wall-fired boiler for Xcel Energy. CC&E installed a temporary 24-point sample grid in the boiler’s economizer outlet duct and utilized our mobile emissions traier to collect O2, CO, and NOx emission data. The focus of the work was testing burners out of service to reduce NOx emissions. Included in the optimization effort were adjustments to secondary air registers for balancing of excess air in the furnace; determining optimal ratio of overfire air to combustion air; and lowering excess O2 operating level. In addition to gaseous emission measurements, high volume ash samples were collected and analyzed onsite to document fly as LOI levels. The result of the effort was a 20% reduction in NOx emissions, reduced excess air, improved boiler operation, and balanced steam temepratures with no increase in CO or LOI.
CC&E conducted CFD modeling for a biomass fuel production facility. CC&E constructed a detailed CFD model of the plant’s biomass combustor, including air flow, particle tracking, combustion, heat transfer, and radiation. The CFD modeling was used to analyze the biomass combustion and investigate slag accumulation.
SOFA Yaw Optimization
Combustion optimization on a 525 MW tangentially fired C-E unit for Duke Energy. A 30-point test grid was installed at the economizer outlet and plumbed for equal-flow composite sampling for O2, CO and NOx from each duct. CC&E uses a large vacuum pump and a bank of filters, moisture traps and rotameters to facilitate composite sampling for gas analysis in our trailer. This arrangement allowed us to conduct point-by-point grid traversing as well.
This combustion tuning effort involved adjustment of SOFA yaw positioning at all three levels in each furnace corner to optimize stack NOx emissions as well as back-end excess O2 balance, resulting in optimum combustion efficiency. Furnace exit temperatures and gas constituents (O2, CO, NOx) also measured via water-cooled HVT probes to verify satisfactory upper furnace conditions.
Combustion Tuning for LOI Improvement
Tuning a large GenOn wall-fired unit for fly ash LOI improvement. CC&E installed a 40-point, PLC-operated O2-CO-NOx test grid at the economizer outlet, collected fly ash samples and conducted LOI analysis. Based on spatial data collected at several mill configurations, CC&E identified an O2 maldistribution and a resutling CO profile with excessively high-CO areas. CC&E recommended various firing configuration adjustments addressing air distribution and improving fly ash LOI.
CC&E conducted mill testing for determination of coal fineness and fuel distribution for RRI Energy. CC&E uses a rotoprobe in accordandce with ISO 9931.
SCR Baseline Characterization
Working for Babcock Power, CC&E conducted baseline emissions characterization to be used for SCR system design for Salt River Project. CC&E measured O2, CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and temperature using a 42-point test grid at the inlet to the hot-side precipitator. We also measured SO3 (controlled-condensation method) at the precipitator outlet as well as O2, CO2, CO, NOx and temperature at grids located at both the air heater inlet and outlet ducts.
Furnace Exit Gas Temepratures
Using air-aspirated, water-cooled HVT probes, CC&E conducted furnace exit temperature mapping for Salt River Project.
Emissions Monitoring & Combustion Tuning
In June, 2011, CC&E conducted a testing and tuning project for Salt River Project. Babcock Power recently installed a new combustion system on CGS Unit 2, a Riley turbo-fired unit buring a PRB coal blend. CC&E used spatial feedback from an economizer-outlet emissions monitoring grid to tune the newly installed combustion system. After the system was tuned to well within the NOx and CO guarantee levels, performance acceptance testing was conducted. CC&E also conducted air heater leakage testing while onsite.
Combustion Tuning for Slag Reduction
CC&E conducted a two-week combustion tuning effort addressing slagging problems on a large tangentially fired unit for Duke Energy. Air mal-distrubution led to areas of incomplete combustion, elevated temperatures and excessive slag deposition in regions of the upper furnace and convective pass. Spatial gas data obtained from a back-end probe grid was used to improve these conditions.
SNCR optimization on a large CFB for East Kentucky Power Co-Op. Following an outage during which newly developed operating curves were applied for primary air, secondary air, fuel and limestone flow and distribution, CC&E conducted four weeks of SNCR optimization testing. Variations in secondary air distribution, ammonia flow and ammonia injection distribution were examined at four boiler loads. Utilizing a PLC-controlled 33-point economizer outlet sample grid, spatial O2, CO, NOx profiles were mapped to achieve maximum possible NOx reductions and ammonia utilization, while NH3 measurements were taken to ensure minimal ammonia slip.
Back-End Air Leakage
Measurement and profiling of air in-leakage on three units for First Energy. Simultaneous spatial O2 and temperaure measurements were made at the air heater inlet, outlet, precipitator outlet, and ID fan inlet. Based on timely data, the utility decided to make major repairs to air heaters during an outage just days after the test.
CFB NOx Optimization
NOx and SO2 optimization on a large circulating fluidized bed boiler for Eastern Kentucky Power Co-Op. Development of operating curves for excess O2; secondary air flow and distribution; fuel and limestone primary air flow and distribution; ash bed depth; limestone flow and distribution and coal flow and distribution. Gaseous emission feedback of O2, CO, NOx and SO2 at the cyclone outlets via water cooled probe as per EPA methods 3A, 10, 7E and 6C, respectively.
Emissions Test Trailer
Construction of another emissions test trailer. We start with an empty box trailer and create a work area that allows our project engineers and test technicians to work together efficiently and effectively to accomplish our clients’ objectives. Our trailers are equipped with analyzers for measurement of O2, NOx, CO, CO2 and SO2; Protocol 1 calibration gases; automated data acquisition system; and a PLC based sampling system for multi-point traverse sampling.
SCR tuning on two units for PSE&G. Tuning of ammonia injection grids to optimize ammonia utilization and NOx removal with O2-NOx-CO-SO2 feedback from 48-point SCR inlet and out gas sampling grids. Spatial measurements of ammonia slip downstream of catalyst beds to verify ammonia utilization.
SCR Startup & Performance Testing
Startup and performance testing of SCR’s installed by Hitachi Power Systems America for PSE&G. SCR Inlet: O2, NOx, CO, SO2 via 24-point grid, as well as multi-point SO3 measurements. SCR Outlet: O2, NOx, temperature via 70-point grid, as well as multi-point SO3 and NH3 slip measurements.